High oxalate ingestion can result in kidney failure. of the investigated species. It is native to the tropical Americas, but is widespread as an introduced species on most continents in a great number of habitats. The leaves are smaller in the upper portion of the central stem. [7], Like many other species of Amaranthus, this plant may be harmful and even deadly when fed to cattle and pigs in large amounts over several days. 2c) are tall, er… Flowers clustered in spikes on panicles. Cooperative Extension prohibits discrimination and harassment on the basis of race, color, national origin, age, sex (including pregnancy), disability, religion, sexual orientation, gender identity, and veteran status. 563-571 p. Pigweeds are known nitrate accumulators, and amaranth responds similarly. 3 vols. variability of Amaranthus retroflexus. Although portions of this plant are edible, ingestion is detrimental to … Post navigation ← Previous News And Events Posted on December 2, 2020 by It will flower from July through September, the seeds ripen from August through October. The leaves are nearly 15 cm (5.9 in) long on large individuals, the ones higher on the stem having a lance shape and those lower on the plant diamond or oval in shape. The seeds are edible and can be eaten raw or cooked. It grows unbranched or with minimal branches. [10], A. retroflexus is a weed and has developed resistance against fomesafen in Northeast China. Top of page A. retroflexus is thought to be a native riverbank pioneer of the central and … The plant is monoecious, with individuals bearing both male and female flowers. Table 1. 2b), and Powell amaranth (Fig. Characteristics. Amaranthus retroflexus L. seeds were harvested from plants grown under uniform conditions in Ames, Iowa, from seeds collected in North America and eastern Europe. This is an erect, annual herb reaching a maximum height near 3 m (9.8 ft). Brown. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, Vol. Pl. * Several potential toxins, including nitrates, oxalates, and several unknown nephrotoxic and myocardiotoxic factors, have been associated with Amaranthus … Most pigweeds are tall, erect-to-bushy plants with simple, oval- to diamond-shaped, alternate leaves, and dense inflorescences (flower clusters) comprised of many small, greenish flowers. as hybrids; in many cases they are probably just extremes of the natural. They are sometimes ground into a powder and eaten as a substitute for cereal. Amaranthus retroflexus, true to one of its common names, forms a tumbleweed. form a strategic partnership called N.C. Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson) is a problematic weed encountered in U.S. cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] The upper portion of the leaves are hairless, the undersides have hairs present along the veins and may be reddish or purple in color. The seed, oil, and leaf are used as food. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of electromagnetic field on germination characteristics of pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus). [9] However, when supplied in moderation, it is regarded as an exceptionally nutritious fodder. However, it can be identified by its shorter and stouter growth habit. Amaranthus retroflexus is a species of flowering plant in the family Amaranthaceae with several common names, including red-root amaranth, redroot pigweed, red-rooted pigweed, common amaranth, pigweed amaranth, and common tumbleweed.[3]. Amaranthus retroflexus Amaranthus retroflexus L. Redroot Amaranth Amaranthaceae (Amaranth Family) Synonym(s): Amaranthus retroflexus var. The record derives from WCSP (in review) (data supplied on 2012-03-23 ) which reports it as an accepted name with original publication details: Sp. Sprouts can be added to salads. The seeds may be eaten raw, or toasted. Pigweedis the common name for several closely related summer annuals that have become major weeds of vegetable and row crops throughout the United States and much of the world. Amaranthus retroflexus is an erect, annual plant with a stem that can be unbranched or branched only near the top; it can grow 20 - 150cm tall, occasionally to 200cm 270 Title Redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) Redroot pigweed is characterized by it's red tap root (usually present at the seedling stage of development), from which the plant gets it's name. Redroot pigweed, smooth pigweed, and Powell amaranth are three closely-related amaranths that have become serious cropland weeds throughout the United States and into southern Canada. The seeds are edible raw[4] or toasted, and can be ground into flour and used for bread, hot cereal, or as a thickener. redroot pigweed. Britton, N.L., and A. Comparison of pollen characteristics [mean(min-max)±st. Review: Microsite characteristics influencing weed seedling recruitment and implications for recruitment modeling. Amaranthus retroflexus is a species of flowering plant in the family Amaranthaceae with several common names, including red-root amaranth, redroot pigweed, red-rooted pigweed, common amaranth, pigweed amaranth, and common tumbleweed. They are sometimes ground into a powder and eaten as a substitute for cereal. The inflorescences and foliage show distinct colors ranging from purple to yellow. both in the Americas and the Old World. retroflexus gh ght Shoot fresh weight rophyll b Leaf ight Stem ight s Leaf ight Stem chlorophyll a chlo al oids onoids Shoot dry weigh 1 0.84** 0.76* 0.80** 0.81** 0.87** 0.49ns 0.55 ns 0.56 ns 0.61 ns -0.40 ns Amaranthus retroflexus . production, with infestations spreading northward.This research investigated the influence of planting date (early, mid-, and late season) and population (AR, IN, MO, MS, NE, and TN) on A. palmeri growth and reproduction at two … A. retroflexus was used for a multitude of food and medicinal purposes by many Native American groups. salicifolius USDA Symbol: AMRE USDA Native Status: L48 (N), AK (I), HI (I), CAN (I), SPM. [3] It is native to the tropical Americas, but is widespread as an introduced species on most continents in a great number of habitats. This plant is now found nearly worldwide as an introduced plant. Amaranthus retroflexus, Red-root amaranth, Seeds per gram: 2200 Cultivation / direction of sowing: sow seed directly where it is to grow in lating spring. Full sun (6 or more hours of direct sunlight a day), 3a, 3b, 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b, 10a, 10b, 11a, 11b. The stems are reddish near the base of the plant. Levels may b. It grows unbranched or with minimal branches. Effects of environmental factors on germination and emergence of Amaranthus retroflexus. SPECIES: Amaranthus retroflexus GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Rough pigweed is an introduced, coarse, monoecious, annual herb with taproots. Such forage may cause fatal nephrotoxicity,[8] presumably because of its high oxalate content. Characteristics and … Read our Commitment to Diversity | Read our Privacy Statement. This is an erect, annual herb reaching a maximum height near 3 m (9.8 ft). Pigweeds accumulate nitrates, which can lead to nitrate poisoning in grazing animals such as horses and ruminants. dev.] of Georgia, Bugwood.org. Germination of seeds from northern populations was significantly higher at 20°C than that from southern populations at the same temperature. The entire plant is used to make medicine. The young leaves are also edible. The three species are discussed together because they are difficult to distinguish from one another in the field, have similar life cycles and habits of growth, and present similar management challenges in crop production. They emerge, grow, flower, set seed, and die within the frost-free growing season. Sprouts can be added to salads. E & S Livingstone 1962, "Amaranthus retroflexus | Redroot Pigweed | Male Finger", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Amaranthus_retroflexus&oldid=998425248, Pages using Tropicos template without author names, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with Chinese-language sources (zh), Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 5 January 2021, at 09:21. amaranthus retroflexus characteristics. [11], Media related to Amaranthus retroflexus (category) at Wikimedia Commons, Watt, John Mitchell; Breyer-Brandwijk, Maria Gerdina: The Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Southern and Eastern Africa 2nd ed Pub. Habitat terrestrial ... Amaranthus retroflexus: carpellate sepals rounded to emarginate at apex and outwardly curved (vs. A. hybridus, with carpellate sepals acute to subacute at apex and erect). One glossy black to dark reddish brown seed is revealed when the bladder-like capsule splits, circumferentially, at maturity. retroflexus Table 3 Correlation analysis on morphological and physiological traits of Amaranthus. 92, Issue. Amaranthus retroflexus is a ANNUAL growing to 0.9 m (3ft). Jan Kępczyński, Paweł Sznigir, Response of Amaranthus retroflexus L. seeds to gibberellic acid, ethylene and abscisic acid depending on duration of stratification and burial, Plant Growth Regulation, 10.1007/s10725-012-9774-3, 70, 1, (15-26), (2012). 1 and 2a), smooth pigweed (Fig. The fruit is a capsule less than 2 mm (0.079 in) long[4] with a "lid" which opens to reveal a tiny black seed. The margins of the leaves are smooth. It is hardy to zone (UK) 4 and is frost tender. They can also be sprouted. The grain is small, around 0.9–1.7 mm in diameter, with a weight around 0.6–1 g/1000 seed, and covered in a hard hull (Fig. This plant is eaten as a vegetable in different places of the world. Cooperative Extension, which staffs local offices in all 100 counties and with the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians. Physical Characteristics. Young leaves may be eaten raw or cooked. However, A. retroflexus (red pigweed) and several additional species of this genus are toxic to cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, and, rarely, horses. A food source for birds, butterflies, moths, insects and small mammals. Identifying Characteristics. Amaranthus hybridus: sepals of fruit-bearing flowers acute at apex and inflorescence with many, short, croweded, thick branches of flowers (vs. A. retroflexus, with sepals of fruit-bearing flowers rounded to truncate at apex and inflorescence with few to many, slender, lax branches of … This variety of pigweed is different in appearance than other common weeds in the same family. The leaf blade is oval to diamond-shaped, but is usually broader at the base. NC State University and N.C. A&T State University work in tandem, along with federal, state and local governments, to In Madrid (2018-05-27) Courtesy: Dorina Pitorac, Spanish Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food Considered a weed, it can be found growing in wastelands, prairies, fallow fields, farm lots, gravelly areas, and cultivated fields. Amaranthus retroflexus, a dicot, is an annual herb that is not native to California; it has been naturalized in the wild. An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. The leaves are nearly 15 cm (5.9 in) long on large individuals, the ones higher on the stem having a lance shape and those lower on the plant diamond or oval in shape. A Large Image of Amaranthus retroflexus (redroot amaranth) from the USDA PLANTS database The plant is monoecious, with individuals bearing both male and fe… The central stem is stout, rounded, veined and covered with white hairs. Another of A. retroflexus's common names is "pigweed" because it grows where hogs are pasture-fed. No species of genus Amaranthus is known to be poisonous,[5] but the leaves contain oxalic acid and may contain nitrates if grown in nitrate-rich soils, so the water should be discarded after boiling. Amaranthus retroflexus L. is an accepted name This name is the accepted name of a species in the genus Amaranthus (family Amaranthaceae ). Usually such plants are treated. Below are some identifying characteristics to help you when making your decision. It is used in the Indian state of Kerala to prepare a popular dish known as thoran by combining the finely cut leaves with grated coconut, chili peppers, garlic, turmeric and other ingredients. Although native to the lower 48, this warm season annual is considered a weed by most. Ground seeds can be used as a cereal. N.C. Amaranthus L. is genus of C4 dicotyledonous herbaceous plants comprising approximately 70 species, with three subgenera, which contains both cultivated and wild types, where cultivated ones are used for food grains, leafy vegetables, potential forages and ornamentals. Amaranthus spp. The leaves are alternate on the stem, long-stalked, and range from dull green to shiny or reddish green. The Importance of Soil Characteristics in Determining Survival of First Year Cottonwood Seedlings in Altered Riparian Habitats. rough pigweed ... hairy stem can grow up to 6 1/2 feet in height. are annual herbaceous plants with a short growing period of about 4–6 weeks. The inflorescence is a large, dense cluster of flowers interspersed with spiny green bracts. Other symptoms, such as bloat or methylglobineamia in the most severe cases, might reflect its high nitrate content. A relative of grain amaranth, redroot pigweed, (Amaranthus retroflexus), has been shown to have 24% crude protein and 79% in vitro digestible dry matter. It is in flower from July to September, and the … Redroot pigweed (Figs. Pigweeds thrive in hot weather, tolerate drought, respond to hi… 991 1753 . Robert Vidéki, Doronicum Kft., Bugwood.org, Steve Dewey, Utah State Univ., Bugwood.org, Phil Westra, Colorado State Univ., Bugwood.org, Doug Doohan, Ohio State Univ./OARDC, Bugwood.org, Lynn Sosnoskie, Univ. Amaranthus retroflexus - WikiMili, The Free Encyclopedia - WikiMil 1913. 4, p. 627. 16(4). Nitrate poisoning in horses and ruminants is characterized by a bluish cast to the mucous membranes, respiratory distress, weakness and trembling. Each leaf base is rounded, the tip can be acute, obtuse, emarginate, or rounded.. It has an erect stem, 1 to 6.6 feet (0.3-2 m) tall, that is commonly freely branched. The seeds are edible and can be eaten raw or cooked. Amaranthus retroflexus, true to one of its common names, forms a tumbleweed. The seeds may be eaten, raw or cooked, ground into a flour, or sprouted. Pigweed is a multi-stemmed summer annual in the Amaranth family. Amaranthus retroflexus and A. graecizans show the smallest values (2.20 - 2.60). Restoration Ecology. Amaranth is a plant. retroflexus and taxa of the Amaranthus hybridus aggregate (e.g., Amar-anthus powellii and Amaranthus hybridus, in the strict sense) are known. Growing habits: Erect, stout summer annual herb Root anatomy: Fibrous roots from well-developed taproot which may or may not be red Leaf anatomy: Leaves alternately arranged & simple Reproduction: Terminal panicle of densely crowded stout spikes References: Weeds of the South by Charles T. Bryson and Michael S. DeFelice The tips of the leaves are pointed or sometimes slightly notched. [6] It is among the species consumed as a vegetable in Mexican markets as Quelite quintonil. Amaranthus. Its invasiveness causes yield loss in many vegetable row crops. Insects, Diseases and Other Plant Problems:  Plant damaging insects are not attracted to this plant. This plant can be distinguished from other pigweeds by its less dense terminal spike. Although portions of this plant are edible, ingestion is detrimental to pigs, cattle, sheep, goats, and horses. As many as 117,000 seeds can be produced per plant. Amaranthus retroflexus ← → Other Common Names: careless weed. Numerous, small, green monoecious flowers with prominent bracts that are longer than their tepals.

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